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18th & 19th Century CE

12th, 13th & 14th Hijrah

-: Centuries Timeline :-
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1700:Murshid Quli Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital at Murshidabad.

1703:Ahmad 11I becomes the Ottoman Sultan. Birth of Shah Wali Ullah. Birth of the religious reformer Muhammad b Abdul Wahab.

1707:Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah.

1711:War between Turkey and Russia. Russia defeated at the battle of Pruth.

1712:Death of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah, accession of Jahandar Shah.

1713:Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Farrukh Siyar.

1718:In the war against Austria, Turkey suffers defeat. By the treaty of Passarowich Turkey loses Hungary.

1719:Deposition of the Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar Muhammad Shah ascends the throne. In Sind the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora.

1722:Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh. Battle of Gulnabad between the Afghans and the Persians. The Persians were defeated and the Afghans under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia. Shah Hussain taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II.

1730:Zanzibar freed from Portugese rule and occupied by Oreart.

1747:Ahmad Shah Durrani established Afghan rule in Afghanistan.

1752:Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal and Umer Marvo.

1752:Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind.

1761:Death of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi.

1761:Battle of Panipat. Ahmad Shah Durrani came to India at the invitation of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi and smashed rising Maratha power in the battle of Panipat.

1764:Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya. ruler of Futa Bandu State in West Sudan.

1773:Death of Ahmad Shah Durrani.

1783:End of Kalhora rule in Sind.

1797:Death of Muhammad Khan Qachar, king of Persia.

1797:Russia occupied Daghestan.

1799:Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans.

1799:Khoqand declared independent Islamic State.


19th Century (1800-1899) C.E.


1803:Shah Abdul Aziz ibn Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic. Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan.

1805:Ibn Saud captured Madinah defeating the Turk garrison.

1804:Othman Dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan.

1805:Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Turks.

1806:Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan.

1807:Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.

1811:Birth of Ali Muhammad Bab founder of Bab movement.

1811:British occupied Indonesia.

1812:Madina fell to Egyptians.

1813:Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hijaz.

1814:Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as Definitive Treaty.

1814:Death of Ibn Saud II.

1814:King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.

1816:British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch.

1822:Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.

1827:Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo- Netherland treaty in 1824.

1828:Russia declared war against Turkey.

1829:Treaty of Adrianople.

1830:French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years rule of Turks.

1831:Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.

1832:Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.

1832:Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.

1834:Abdul Qadir recognised as ruler of the area under his control by the French.

1839:Defeat of Turkey by the Egyptians in the battle of Nisibin.

1840:Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria.

1840:British frees occupied Aden.

1841:State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.

1842:Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. crossed over to Morocco.

1842:Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan.

1847:Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice but France violated its pledge and sent him as a captive to France.

1849:Death of Muhammad Ali pasha.

1850:Ali Muhammad Bab arrested and executed by Iranian government. Qurratul Ain Tabira, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Babism also shot dead.

1852:Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napolean III. He settled in Turkey.

1855:Khiva annexed by Russia.

1857:British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.

1859:Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of Daghestan became a Russian province.

1860:Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.

1861:Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.

1862:Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan..

1865:Khoqand State liquidated by Russia.

1869:Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.

1871:Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Turkey through a Firman.

1876:Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs.

1878:Turkey handed over Cyprus to Britain.

1878:Adrianople fell to Russia.

1879:Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Egypt.

1879:Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.

1881:France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo.

1881:Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.

1882:Egypt came under British military occupation.

1883:Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.

1885:Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule.

1885:Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartum.

1890:End of Banbara State.

1895:Afghanistan got Wakhan corridor by an understanding with Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China.

1895:Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed prophethood.

1897:State of Bagirimi occupied by the French,

1899:Fall of Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly.

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